What is a diabetic foot ulcer?
A diabetic foot ulcer is an open sore on your foot that fails to heal.
They often occur on the bottom of your feet but can occur anywhere skin
or tissue breaks down or is cut open.
Why do diabetic foot ulcers occur?
Normally, if you injure your foot, you feel pain that alerts you to the
injury. You then take steps to treat it: clean the wound, apply a bandage
and perhaps ointment, and replace poor fitting shoes if that is the underlying
problem. Your body continues the healing process and your foot heals well.
But when you have diabetes, your natural healing process and pain reflexes
can be disrupted. If you develop poor circulation in your legs and feet
(peripheral arterial disease or PAD), have high blood sugar, or both,
healing slows down.
If you have nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy), your feet may feel numb.
Or you may have no feeling at all. In either case, the injury may be painless.
When that happens, blisters, cuts, and sores can go unnoticed. That’s
when serious problems can begin.
Why are diabetic foot ulcers so harmful to me?
Diabetic foot ulcers can be downright dangerous. They are the leading cause
of amputation and hospitalization when you have diabetes.
If infection spreads throughout your body, or severe ligament, muscle,
and bone damage occurs, amputation may be necessary. In less severe cases,
you may need surgery to remove tissue that has died.
In the best circumstances, it takes weeks to several months for a diabetic
foot ulcer to heal.
Having diabetes puts you a much greater risk for a foot ulcer. Once you
have had one, you are more likely to develop another.
What can I do to prevent them?
Although preventing a diabetic foot ulcer is not always possible, you can
take steps to reduce your risk.
Here are my 6 basic rules to help prevent diabetic foot ulcers:
- Keep your blood sugar at your target level throughout the day.
- Practice daily foot care. Wash, thoroughly dry, moisturize (except between
toes), and carefully inspect your feet every day. Use a mirror or helper
- Eat a healthy diet as advised by your doctor and dietician.
- Keep your toenails trimmed, cutting straight across.
- Have a podiatrist remove corns and calluses.
- Always wear well-fitting shoes and clean, dry socks indoors and out.
Most important, talk to your doctor right away if you have any foot sore
or foot problem that does not heal promptly. Report any breaks in your
skin and any changes in the feeling, shape, or color of your feet.
Early treatment is key to preventing infections and serious complications.