What Is Structural Heart and Valve Disease?
Structural Heart and Valve disease is characterized by damage to or a defect
in one of the four heart valves: the mitral, aortic, tricuspid or pulmonary.
mitral and tricuspid valves control the flow of blood between the atria and the ventricles (the upper
and lower chambers of the heart).
pulmonary valve controls the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs, and the aortic
valve governs blood flow between the heart and the aorta, and thereby
the blood vessels to the rest of the body.
mitral and aortic valves are the ones most frequently affected by valvular heart disease.
Normally functioning valves ensure that blood flows with proper force in
the proper direction at the proper time. In structure and valvular heart
disease, the valves become too narrow and hardened (stenotic) to open
fully, or are unable to close completely (leaky valve).
Structural Heart and Valve disease symptoms can occur suddenly, depending
upon how quickly the disease develops. If it advances slowly, then your
heart may adjust and you may not notice the onset of any symptoms easily.
Many of the symptoms are similar to those associated with congestive heart
failure, such as:
- Dizziness or fainting
- Chest pan
- Rapid weight gain
- Shortness of breath
- Swelling of the feet, ankles, hand or abdomen
Causes and Risk Factors
There are many causes of structural heart and valve disease; some factors
can be present at birth (congenital), while others may be acquired later
in life. They include:
- Calcium buildup
- Deformed valve
- Heart valve tissue degenerated
- Bacterial endocarditis
- High blood pressure
- Heart attack damage
- Radiation therapy
- Rheumatic fever
During your examination, the doctor listens for distinctive heart sounds,
known as heart murmurs, which indicate valvular heart disease. As part
of your diagnosis, you may undergo one or more of the following tests:
Because structural heart and valve disease can be mild or severe, treatment
options vary. Your doctor may suggest a treatment through medication or
a surgical procedure to repair or replace a valve.
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)
TAVR is the name for a new procedure in cardiology and cardiac surgery
that enables patients with a condition called severe aortic stenosis (narrowing
of the aortic heart valve opening) to receive a new heart valve without
undergoing open-heart surgery. Traditionally, the primary treatment for
aortic stenosis has been surgery. However, certain patients with severe
stenosis were considered too sick for surgery.
As a result of a pivotal new Partner Trial, the FDA has approved the use
of the Edwards' Transcatheter Heart Valve, which utilizes a minimally
invasive procedure to implant a new valve using a method very similar
to the implantation of a stent. Therefore, patients whose conditions were
previously thought to be untreatable can now receive a new valve without
open heart surgery.
Learn More about TAVR Procedure
Saving Lives through Cardiac Research
Gina Simpson, Heart Disease