Torrance Memorial Breast Cancer Program
Though incidence is down and survival is vastly improved, breast cancer
remains the most common cancer among American women. The newest figures
show that by the time they reach their seventies, one in eight women will
have developed breast cancer. Here at the Hunt Cancer Institute, we are
dedicated to providing warm, compassionate and expert care for women with
breast cancer, through every step of their journey, diagnosis through
treatment and in the years of survivorship that lie ahead.
We offer comprehensive breast health services, including education, diagnosis,
treatment and support. We have invested in state-of-the-art technologies
for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, including
stereotactic (nonsurgical) mammotomy biopsy, surgical biopsy aided by
needle localization, and
sentinel lymph node mapping system.
Learn more about our Breast Diagnostic Centers
Types of Breast Cancer
Though the vast majority of people with breast cancer are female, the disease
can also affect men. The term breast cancer describes any malignant tumor
that forms in the breast tissue, of which there are two main types. These are:
This is the most common type of breast cancer. It begins in the lining
of the milk ducts, thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the
breast to the nipple. Ductal carcinoma also consists of two sub-types,
ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma. DCIS is
non-invasive in nature. The abnormal cancer cells stay where they are
found, while invasive ductal carcinoma can spread to the rest of the body.
This type of breast cancer that develops from the lobules of the breast,
which are the glands that actually produce breastmilk. Non-invasive lobular
carcinoma rarely spreads outside the infected lobule; this term describes
a variety of types of breast cancer, not just one. Invasive lobular carcinoma
can spread to the rest of the body.
Breast Cancer Stages
Stages of breast cancer are described as numbers on a scale of 0 to IV
(1-4) in order of severity.
Cancer cells are confined to the part of breast where they are originally detected.
In stage I A:
The tumor is no larger than 2 cm and remains in the breast. No lymph nodes
In stage IB:
Small clusters of breast cancer cells (0.2 mm – 2mm) are found in
lymph nodes regardless of the existence of tumor in the breast.
In stage IIA:
Tumor (0-2 cm) is found in the breast. Cancer (larger than 2 mm) is detected
in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breastbone. Or
Tumor (2-5 cm) is found in the breast without cancer in lymph nodes.
In stage IIB:
Tumor (2-5 cm) is found in the breast. Small clusters of breast cancer
cells (0.2 mm – 2 mm) are observed in the lymph nodes, or cancers
have spread to 1-3 axillary lymph nodes, or lymph nodes near the breastbone. Or
Tumor (Larger than 5 cm) is found in the breast but without lymph nodes infected.
In stage IIIA:
Cancer is found in 4-9 axillary lymph nodes or lymph nodes near the breastbone
regardless of the size of the tumor. Or
Tumor (larger than 5 cm) is found in the breast. Meanwhile, small clusters
of breast cancer cells (0.2 mm – 2 mm) are detected in the lymph
nodes or cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or to the lymph
nodes near the breastbone.
In stage IIIB:
The size of tumor does not really matter in this stage. Cancer has spread
to chest wall and/or to the skin of the breast and caused swelling or
an ulcer. Also, cancer may infect up to 9 axillary lymph nodes, or the
lymph nodes near the breastbone.
In stage IIIC:
Regardless of the size of the tumor, cancer has spread to the skin of the
breast and caused swelling or an ulcer and/or has spread to the chest
wall; Also, cancer may infect up to 10 lymph nodes above or below the
collarbone; or axillary lymph nodes and lymph nodes near the breastbone.
In stage IV, cancer has spread to other organs of the body, most often
the bones, lungs, liver, or brain.
Breast Cancer Risk Factors
There are many potential causes of breast cancer, some inherited, some
based on lifestyle and some with no apparent cause. Gender, age, and family
genetic influence are among those risks that can’t be changed. However,
living a healthy lifestyle always reduces risk.
Although men can and occasionally do get breast cancer, risk is far higher
for women and increases with age. Other established risk factors for breast
- Family and personal history of breast cancer
- Radiation to chest or face before age 30
- Certain breast changes
- Race/ ethnicity
- Being overweight
- Pregnancy history
- Breastfeeding history
- Menstrual history
- Using HRT
- Drinking alcohol
- Having dense breasts
- Lack of exercise
Breast Cancer Signs and Symptoms
Breast cancer signs and symptoms develop progressively; most women first
discover just one or two signs. Here are some of the common symptoms of
- A lump or thickening in or near the breast or underarm area.
- Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
- A change in the skin texture (may similar to an orange peel’s texture)
- Skin irritation or dimpling
- Breast or nipple pain
- Nipple retraction (turning inward)
- Redness, scaling, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
- A nipple discharge other than breast milk
Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean you definitely have
breast cancer, but they should be checked out. Call your healthcare provider
if you have any of these symptoms or any others that you find unusual.
Breast Cancer Screening
An American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Center of Excellence
Mammography remains the safest and most reliable way to detect breast cancer
in its earliest, most curable form.
Since 1986, our Torrance Memorial Vasek and Anna Maria Polak Breast Diagnostic
Center has been a leader in women’s health care in the South Bay
community and surrounding cities. The Center is recognized by the American
College of Radiology as a Breast Imaging Center of Excellence. At our
Center, our standard of care is to have a board-certified radiologist
experienced in mammography rigorously review each mammogram to ensure
the preciseness and accuracy of the test result.
Learn More about the Breast Diagnostic Centers
Breast Cancer Diagnosis
If you find a lump or another type of worrisome symptom or a screening
mammography detects a breast abnormality, we offer a variety of diagnostic
screening modalities. Based on your symptoms and history, your doctor
will recommend the right strategy for you.
Here are the preliminary technologies we use to learn more about a potential
breast cancer diagnosis:
- Diagnostic mammography: Done the same way as screening mammography, the
diagnostic mammogram provides more thorough images of the area of concern.
Ultrasound: This painless, non-invasive form of imaging uses sound waves to produce
detailed images of the tissue inside the breast.
Breast MRI: Often used to evaluate a lump or other breast abnormality, breast MRI
uses magnetic imaging to determine the actual size of a lesion or tumor
and to determine whether any other abnormalities are present in the breast.
Diagnostic mammography, ultrasound and breast MRI are all forms of breast
screening or imaging tests. Their results help to guide biopsy, which
is the only way to tell if the cancer really exists.
Technologies for Breast Biopsy
A biopsy is required to make a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer and
to identify its type. Here are the types of breast biopsy we perform at
Stereotactic (nonsurgical) mammotomy biopsy: This technology precisely locates and accurately diagnoses lumps that
cannot be felt. It can be performed on an outpatient basis and you may
resume normal activities the same day.
Traditional surgical biopsy, aided by
needle localization: A local anesthetic is used to numb the area, followed by insertion of
a wire (needle) into the lesion, which removes a sample for testing.
Sentinel lymph node mapping: As an adjunct to the surgical biopsy, this test seeks information about
whether cancer may have spread. A small amount of radioactive substance
is injected beneath the nipple; it travels to the auxiliary lymph nodes
to identify them so they can be targeted for removal and testing. Nodes
are then sampled to exclude the presence of cancer.
Breast Cancer Treatment
Our all-female is focused on providing personal and compassionate care.
We believe that early detection and proper treatment provides the best
chance for full recovery and preservation of the affected breast.
The main types of breast cancer treatments are:
For More Information
For additional information about the breast cancer program at Torrance
Memorial, call our Breast Cancer Nurse Navigator at 310-784-6384.
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